In this lesson we have looked at four gismu for cause and effect and their corresponding sumti tcita:


physical cause (rinka)


motive (mukti)


justification (krinu)


implication (nibli)

We have also seen how sumti tcita can be converted with se and looked briefly at connecting sentences (.ije, .iseni'ibo.) The next lesson will look at connectives in more detail.



forethought emphasis indicator; indicates next word is especially emphasized


x1 turns/rotates/revolves around axis x2 in direction x3


x1 ridicules/mocks/scoffs at x2 about x3 (property/event) by doing activity x4 (event)


x1 is polite/courteous/civil in matter x2 according to standard/custom x3


x1 is a table/flat solid upper surface of material x2, supported by legs/base/pedestal x3


x1 analyzes/examines-in-detail x2 by method/technique/system x3 [process/activity]


x1 feels wonder/awe/marvels about x2


used by... (sumti tcita from pilno 'use')


x1 (mass) is a meal composed of dishes including x2

se ba'i 

instead of... (sumti tcita from se basti 'is replaced')


x1 (source) is quiet/silent/[still] at observation point x2 by standard x3


x1 behaves/conducts oneself as/in-manner x2 (event/property) under conditions x3


x1 hears x2 against background/noise x3; x2 is audible; (adjective:) x1 is aural


x1 is a voice/speech sound of individual x2


toilet (vikmi 'excrete' + kumfa 'room')


x1 is funny/comical to x2 in property/aspect x3 (nu/ka); x3 is what is funny about x1 to x2

Exercise 5

Translate from Lojban.

Note: On occasion, it is useful to give bits of non-Lojban in a Lojban text, leaving it in its original spelling. This could be because we don't want to distort a name too much by 'Lojbanising' it, or because we're actually inserting a phrase from another language into the text. In both cases, we have to give an unambiguous signal where the non-Lojban text finishes, and the Lojban resumes.

To do this, the non-Lojban is surrounded on either side by a Lojban word — any word, as long as it doesn't occur inside the non-Lojban text. The most popular choice is gy., standing for glico 'English' (since that's where most non-Lojban text comes from these days.)

If the text is a name, it is preceded by la'o instead of la. If it is a quotation, it is preceded by zoi instead of lu ... li'u.

  1. .i la ranjit. smaji ca lenu la suzyn. cpedu le sanmi le bevri kei ki'u le nu ry. clite kei .e le nu ry. nelci le voksa be la suzyn. kei

  2. .i seri'a bo la djiotis. kakne lenu tirna lenu le'i zutse pe le ri'u jubme cu tavla simxu

  3. .i la djiotis. mu'i lenu go'i cu carna fi le ri'u jubme

  4. .i ni'i ku la djiotis. na zgana lenu la ranjit. tarti lenu simsa dy. kei mu'i le nu ckasu

  5. .i la suzyn. cmila semu'i lenu la djiotis. carna fi sy.

  6. .i cusku lu .i mo li'u

  7. .i la suzyn. cusku lu .i la ranjit. pu cusku lo xajmi pe la'o gy. Schönberg gy. .e. la'o gy. Stravinsky gy. li'u

  8. .i la djiotis. mu'i cmoni cusku zoi gy. chootio! gy.

Exercise 6

Translate into Lojban.

  1. After requesting the meal, Ranjeet leaves to go to the bathroom, so he cannot hear Jyoti.

  2. Jyoti talks so that she is like Ranjeet in complexity.

  3. She says "I shall now analyse the 47th creation (= composition) of Jimmy Bob Bach with this mirror — because I can." (Hint: use la'o. You can come up with a word for 'with'; look at the vocabulary list carefully...)

  4. Susan laughs, since Jyoti is as funny as Ranjeet. (Hint: use mintu)

  5. Jyoti says "Susan, why are you talking with Ranjeet about crap?" (Hint: do not use the Lojban word for 'excrement'; the metaphor won't necessarily translate, and would be malglico. Instead, use 'foolishness'.)

  6. Susan says "Because he has awesome eyes." (Hint: don't use the Lojban for 'have'; the place structure of 'eye' will do this for you.)